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Investigación, consultoría y entrenamiento en Psicología Industrial para America Latina.

Erratic ignorance

Principal | CV Profesionales / Professional CV | Certificación APA / Certificates APA | Idea principal | Servicios profesionales | Recomendaciones internacionales | Experiencia | Misión SIOP | Definición de Psicología Industrial | Links I - O | La Enseñanza de la Psicología Industrial en América / Teaching I-O in Latinamérica | Alianzas | División Psicología Internacional | Psicólogos Industriales Famosos | Noticias / News (2002 - 2014) | Topics of analysis / Tópicos de análisis | Discutiendo técnicas / Discussing techniques | Contacto | Chile against Industrial-Organizational Psychology | Erratica ignorancia | Erratic ignorance


Topic 1. - A critical view: "The subculture of cannibal mice: The prototype is the city of Iquique in northern Chile"

Topic 2. - The lack of Chilean Education in general, merchandizing the basic, media and professional education, obstacles to professional license and recognition, and the lack of job placement in Chile and Latin America.

(Point / Counterpoint)



Topic 1. - A critical view: "The subculture of cannibal mice: The prototype. - The city of Iquique in northern Chile"  ​​(2012)

A. Generalization in Education and Social Profile of the city. -

The city of Iquique, is currently a relatively small city, which has about 200000 inhabitants, linked with another town of about 70,000 inhabitants aprox. It is a messy and complex city, has not yet given its own regulatory plan to order and organize a good development of the city. The motto of politicians and local authorities is: "Into troubled waters, gain of fishermen ..."

Iquique is located in the northern of Chile, is the capital of the region called Tarapaca. The main activities are trade, which strengthens in a mixed  and small economy, involving local and international trade, also small fishing industry, which is currently in bankruptcy, and also a small, almost medium-scale mining of copper, which usually derives its earnings and profits to other regions of the world and the country's capital, Santiago, Chile.

It is a city with plenty of paradoxes resulting from the loss of their cultural traditions, and the interference of many external values ​​associated with a variety of vices and bad habits, so that indicators of crime have increased significantly has greatly increased drug trafficking and prostitution, and people who are originally from the city, longing for the days of tranquility and peace, who once was typical in the past of that city. This is significant because actually always are mentioned bad news about the behavior of the city and its citizens, in relevant subjects, such as corruption, crime, drug addiction, etc.

It should be added that the city of Iquique has a very low level of education, including primary and secondary school with very poor performance (in fact, ranks in the last position in achievement of elementary and secondary education in Chile). University education in Iquique is also very poor, as are privileged and priorized the merchandizing criteria in education over universal standards of knowledge and learning (pervasive problem throughout Chile, and this happens for educational policies that focus on decentralization and economic independence of institutions of higher education, being markedly accentuated this problem). The same happens in the middle and high school, where the benefit of state subsidies to individuals and private holders of different schools, has created administrative criteria that favor the "profit" and management "business ideas of education" and the belief that education is always “purchased”, issues that "delude" falsely represented to consumers, creating a dramatic deterioration of the concept of civility itself, morality, learning and education themselves, triggering the problem in strong motivations and incentives of prestige and power that have nothing to do with knowledge, good culture and / or science, that is, generate a new problem more serious and delicate problems in the educational, economic and social .

B. Historical background of the city.

Among the historical landmarks of Iquique, it should be noted that in mid-nineteenth century, Iquique was a Peruvian city, and as a Chilean city is only in place since the late nineteenth century, after the Pacific War (1879), war was conducted between Chile and Peru-Bolivia coalition, in which Chile was victorious and thus appropriated the coast until then the current Peruvian and Bolivian northern Chile, including its sea and the mountains of the Andes. Pacific War between Chile, Peru, Bolivia, had its cause in the dispute over the exploitation of nitrate control (non-metallic mineral) in the current northern Chilean area prior to the war, belonged to Peru and Bolivia. Then, British economic colonialism, who had an interest in continuing to maintain control of salt production centers of the Latin American region, proceeded to support and assist Chile, both militarily and economically, since it was more forgiving of the British colonial policies and economic as Peru and Bolivia, demanded more control of the production centers, and greater amount of taxes to English interests, than they were willing to pay.

The city, at present, is characterized by two sectors: one sector old fashioned and a modern fashioned place, and generally, at the present, the city  is full of criminals, prostitution, drug addiction and a lot of corruption in all spheres. But the city had its period of economic and social prosperity. The welfare of the community and the city itself in the ninth century to the mid-twentieth, it was possible product of the economic boom and the nitrate or potassium nitrate, which was considered "white gold" and that generated in the late nineteenth and early to mid twentieth century, an excellent source of income to the area north of Chile, especially in this city, which stood out as a port exporting this product. This situation was prolific until the 1940 or even 1950, dates on which was replaced almost definitely the natural nitrate nitrate nitrate plastic, commonly used in the manufacture of gunpowder, agriculture and mariculture.

The replacement of the natural product, the synthetic product of nitrate generated a crisis and fall of the sale price and the natural product. Then, in northern Chile, where the natural saltpeter (potassium nitrate) production centers were closed, causing an economic crisis across the north of the country, especially in Iquique, a city that was forced to support themselves until the early sixties of the twentieth century, thanks to its fishing industry, an industry that was generous only until 1969, when there was a productive chaos, presumably by the growth of the Peruvian fishing fleet and fishing fleet international high seas, which caused (and cause) extensive destruction of fish that normally reached the coast of Chile (and smaller fish), so it generated the industrial fisheries crisis in the city (which still exists).

Proceeds of the foregoing, in Iquique were built "black flags" throughout the city, thus indicating that the population protested, since he had no work or food to support groups or households.

C. The power and fame, in the midst of poverty.

Poverty in the city increased, and the crisis was increasing because of additional problems, such as the emigration of its population. All these changes and "fears of civility" local, generated a subculture of partial interests of one sector of the population. This local subculture known as "local oligarchy", based on traders, politicians, and other sects of Masons; generated a bad habit "nepotistic" and a "common interest group-coalition" that firmly entrenched in the city, as a habit of self sustenance and survival of only "some" people of Iquique. Especially I must highlight the action of the local Masons, who for decades have controlled the power and civic organization in the city (still today), apparently educated and benevolent, but of well thinkers and people of good judgment formed, they really have only a very little, or nothing. And they only represent a group of "interest" personal and the group is useful to settle their “brothers” in good jobs, and leave out to the others, favoring their group membership and ignoring any external growth principle. This sect is known for their "authoritarianism" and as to any other group of "local" is characterized by their despotism and they "attack" everybody from above or below that is not in their "paradigm", ie, representing their own criteria. This description is certainly one of those facts. What certainly says only a "crude" interpretation of pathologies of power, part of "some", and habits that persists today.

For this and many other reasons, in Iquique based on this "inequity", poverty was increasing progressively in the city, becoming noticeably significant in the early seventies. In that decade is established in Chile, the military dictatorship, specifically in 1973, the September 11, later legitimized as self-military government, constitutional property. The military government was led by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, as the ultimate authority, who had previously been mayor of the city of Iquique, in charge of public administration that served as political authority.

The military ruler affinity with the city of Iquique, allowed to grant to it special privileges, build and develop a lever of economic growth in the region, which was called the International Zone (ZOFRI), consisting in a territorial exempted from taxes and state taxes of Chile, with the purpose of producing interest, for the same tax relief facilities in the area, traders and producers in the world, looking implicitly that they are installed and reap the benefits, to thereby stimulate the local economy and improve through trade flow, and the ability to facilitate the installation of productive industries in the area. Providentially, this support was generating resources to the ailing local economy. However, the city of Iquique, perhaps influenced by his style rooted, nepotistic and oligarchic type, plus the ease of handling and workability criteria of political and administrative management, usually outsiders criteria that favored immigrants who settled in the city, shopping habits generated in Iquique, such as the smuggling trade, or unofficial trade with neighboring countries such as Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina. Note that the "outsiders" usually people and family groups in the south of the country, took advantage of the benefits of conducting zone criteria and decisions regarding the fate of the city, around their particular interests. Thus, the local oligarchy and nepotism implicit, gave rise to the use of outsiders at the expense of good local treatment. Thing that the outsider was not used, because the scarcity of resources in their areas of origin, plus abuse of landowners and businessmen who exercised through authoritarian administrations and semi slave in their home, not allowed to grow and develop , so that finding a vein of resources in Iquique, in addition to this opportunity, lack of normal values ​​and standards of work and social life (for example, still discussed in television series, the "patterns" or owners companies and agricultural areas, exploit workers, to the point that when a worker is going to marry, the estate owner must keep before the husband, sex with the bride). These "individuals", usually very short of good education, and to the military or political, they began to generate new customs in this city, and are usually classified as "bad habits", perhaps motivated by social resentment of not having parameters moral and normal social existence. For example, coupled with corrupt business vision of the neighboring countries, the action of local interests, led by outsiders, caused serious business problems. For example, Iquique Free Trade Zone has a negotiated with Bolivia, which contributes almost 50% of profits, but are not officially recognized by the Bolivian government, ie, they are smuggling or black market. (Today, this situation has reconsidered and denied by both governments, perhaps, for the interests of other localities, such as the city of Arica, in that there is little trade with Bolivia, officially recognized, but now same Bolivian authorities, want to deny, because surely does not provide "private currency" through illicit enrichment, using state guarantees).

Paradoxically, and with the previous statement of mismanagement of criteria and vision of local businesses, we generated a sharp increase in taxes to local industries or near Iquique, which caused the exodus of most of these emerging industries to other locations nearby, such as Peru and Brazil.

As we have seen, the city of Iquique had opportunities of growth but this growth has not been properly streamlined ie not ordained nor has been supportive of the benefit of the city itself, but rather has benefited other people and particular localities. In definitely has created administrative chaos and business that benefits others and not to the same location.

D. Cultural and economic  progressive deterioration of the city:

The "permissive" to third parties or others who are not part of local heritage (ie, temporary migration), has generated an indiscriminate use, disorderly and abusive, the city's own potential, as it generated a local subculture where behavioral pathologies proliferate bringing consumerism and authoritarianism, where it grows ignorance, mediocrity and the banality of easy life in the resident community. The resulting poor productivity are generally poor quality of life, a disorder of the private and public administration and other services bureaucrats. And as mentioned, given the existence of other powerful groups such as politicians and sects, such as Freemasonry, has created a generational elite sectarian, and it occupies and captures the jobs and most important influence in the city. This matrix defines the occupational and non-legitimate power that vitiates the order of local organizations. But interestingly, I consider it by immigrants, which helped in creating a subculture of ignorant and anachronistic power, which prevents the required qualitative improvements in modern life. Perhaps in these groups to exist many "immigrants" with "skills" special, especially of Freemasonry, which includes their recurring pathologies of power.

F. - Continuous worsening. -

As the influence of informal power in Iquique has meant a cultural retreat, also changed the local administrative culture, which traditionally was considered exemplary and adapted to the principles and rules of law and national, I mean the 1940 -1970, but today are part of arbitrary manipulations of interest of some individuals and / or local groups, and this is how these same architects have started to ring and skew, falsify, deceive and arbitrarily used for personal gain, the formal procedures and techniques of management and organization of "rules and laws" provision for the development of quality production and service companies and institutions. For example, the international quality standards, ISO 9000, have been adapted in Chile by the National Institute of Standardization. The funny thing is that in Chile and in particular and special case of iquiqueñas companies have been getting the "quality certification" (with national standards but standardizing international standards), through misuse of this type of validation, because they have created "consulting groups" with formal institutions that evaluate the certification process, who coalicionan and cohere to achieve "truncated" to the certification of quality, without complying strictly, strict international requirements. That is, copied and counterfeited procedures are not performed quality audits properly, do not fit the criteria and instruments to the specific realities of each company, etc.. That is, there is very little for what is real in the end, the agreement negotiated between companies, business consultants and certification (guarantee), but shows a shameless behavior, which reflects the explicit and obvious mediocrity in local organizations.

As we see, the manipulation of rules, local is a bad habit, because the interests of "pretend" for the achievement of business benefits is a subject that makes the disorder and lack of integrity and corporate social system Iquique.

G. Point / Counterpoint


The problem of the city, is fundamentally a problem of economic organization of the city?

A. - I think it's a problem that originates on the basis of precarious situations who has lived this city, and in relation to the times of good income, which generated a subculture of traditions too receptive to foreign influences and sub criteria, mainly of immigrants who did not adapt to the rules of the city, but that was changing.

Do changes have shown some major improvements?

A. - Not at all, the changes have produced a host of social ills, such as increased drug abuse, poor school performance and labor, prostitution, corruption large increase in major fiscal positions generally great psychological violence arbitrary criteria and management of a "supposed" community psychology, assumptions imposed values, which are not scientific at all, and only hints at the tricks and social and cultural quirks of the population, in short, a chaos, that only is supported by trade variables of limited use.

Are there any changes for improvement?

R. Apparently show changes, but only superficial improvement, as local customs have been uprooted from their sources and have resulted in chaos due to the negative influences of foreign cultures and pseudo to bad local customs rooted in the nepotism and local oligarchy. No significant improvement, but rather a substantive deterioration of the principal, which are the criteria for entrepreneurship development, cultural and educational. At present, the drain of used vehicles, plus the low productivity, high consumption of drugs and entertainment everywhere, with "magic" second or third category, negotiated handling and lack of decent targets medium and long-term results appear to be the mismanagement that has existed historically in this commune.

Is the work environment that remains as volatile criteria then?

R. Organizations have adjustment problems are addressed and sub market criteria in their levels of basic needs, there are no projections in the medium to long term, except in the objectives, but ultimately do not lead not in practice. Wages are very low and almost 50% of the the same in the second region, Antofagastaa. Exist the manipulation of employment contracts and the permanent "insecurity" of the permanency in their jobs,  that keep workers always in basic needs, ant this is a normal working style in the city. For example, it is normal for a local university professor to not be contracted  internally, but only as occasional work. He made his hours payment, for averaging $ 12 to $ 18 of an hour of teaching, done. He has no health benefits or social welfare, and their contracts only are for the active academic period. For example, if a course has 72 hours, only that amount will be canceled, ie just over U.S. $ 800 to $ 1000, for the total semester hours. What constitutes a wage vulgarity, product of the actual management and mercantilist education system, and is worse in this city as a form of manipulation work. The same "criteria" is used in other studies and activities in general, technical and professional.


Topic 2. - The Chilean Education in general, university of professional education, professional license and its relationship to job placement in the Chilean and Latin America.

The universitary dilemma of professional developement and/or the own support of self management. -

A. Generalization.

In Chile, education is in crisis and is evident in many ways, the appellant noted in the news headlines in national newspapers that claim.

The main cause of deterioration of education in Chile is the commercialism that has been subjected. Today, anyone who wants good education, so he (she) or your child (ren) to or relative (s) must be willing to pay for that good education. This would be normal, if not for the handling of the economic elite of the country, which has built a system for handling commercial objectives and the object of the Chilean education. The country's culture is nurtured, then sap produced to benefit the few at the expense of the benefit that the state provides the money for all Chileans, only privileged a few, who control the entire education system.

B. Strange private support.

For example, private schools "subsidized" overabundant middle school, enjoying a benefit of economic support, which provides the state, which is called subsidy, which is money that the state of Chile gives particular interest to to manage financially the education provided to citizens. This way of setting the course of the educational objectives of the country, generates competition between these schools but in the end, it is translated with purely commercial objectives and lacking transcendent goals of education itself, which should settle in their own development objectives need to should be applied in national and educational policies. So as we see, are the new "criteria" education, which are, for example in the middle and high school, having a better score on college admissions tests, satisfy the parents and students rather than the same educational system and its teachers more concern to trim education content, deceiving the public with a supermarket product, disregarding that education is much more complex and diverse, requiring most significant and far-reaching goals for cultural development and economic development, as mentioned above.

C. Comparison between state and private administration.

The truth in Chilean education is that, when education was administered by the state, or state education then was much better than the current private education, and "quality education", not dependent on the economic condition of the students. Well, this new approach amorphous and distorted the concept of good education, which is in force in Chile, is a ground of serious deterioration that has taken the mentality and youth culture and especially in the Chilean labor culture in general. Everything is sold, and sold to you have to pay, that is the direction of education in Chile.

My view does not deny or reject the value of private education or training, but highlights the lack of goals and purpose of the Chilean education, guided by overarching goals, comprehensive, and notes on how the higher goals practical, moral and amanual are "hidden" behind a veil of superficiality and banality. This is important to consider, since private schools can make good management education only if there are clear benchmarks and targets. But here's the dilemma, or rather the unique dilemma: "Either, of I realize an education that pursues development objectives of expected competencies for the good, correct and timely insertion of the learner in a social environment with major changes, and permanent changes new demands required "or," I realize education pursuing objectives of profit and market, and second it with achieving acceptable social aspects only cross, so they can be useful according to the old paradigm anachronistic fossils utilitarian short term. " Ie: Or, think of quality or quantity in education.

D. Chilean concept of quality in education.

This is another problem that is seen in the Chilean education, and is not directly considered in the literature, and is about the lack of conceptual clarity of quality in education. Much is said about quality, but not understood in essence what it means for the country. We know that quality is: "To satisfy the requirements of a customer, and even more so trying to meet this, with respect to performance specifications of the clauses in a product or service, optimizing or improving requirements." But my question is, not the concept of quality, but about: Who is the customer? It turns out that this is a dilemma, as both are want to be customers. The representative of the students, because it points you pay some money, and also the student, because it shows you are paying and must demand something unknown, also the school, because it points to is who pays their salaries to teachers and staff general. As we see, there are a conceptual confusion regarding the "client", which is the subject of quality.

Let me point out that, for me, the customer is the "state", the State which is the sum of all Chileans, not only is the political representative of turn. Well, then, if the State is putting money, ie the money of all Chileans, and therefore we can not ignore people, although their objectives may be contingent on the same educational purposes. There is then, a matter of need for a new paradigm with respect to value-based education, and should be operational, so urgent. And that is the "state", which is closely related to it, but the old paradigms (paradigms, say some bureaucrats, trying to camouflage the concept with a "supposed" modern administration) tell us about the state, which must reduced to a minimum.

Well, on the other hand, we also know that the client, who buys, and his taste does not have to meet the social purposes of consumption, as this generates the initial contradiction in the field of education, the social crisis and inequality. And you know why? Because they simply are not set parameters and define organizational social, cultural and value-based, family and Chilean society, ie new ways of doing things in education, all because we handled with orthodox criteria, dyed saturated and social contradiction.

Although the world today, you are actually deciding where to go your way, or concern for the basic needs of the majority, or by the satisfaction of needs and vanities of a few. So the contradiction remains in effect valoric between the state and the individual, when we know that the individual is nourished by the state and the "family" and that in turn feeds them (synergy).

This is the same basic social and economic contradictions, or in other words, the conflict of private and public interests.

Do we must accept the Marxist theory of the basis of social conflict to improve ourselves as countries? Or should we develop new stadiums surpassing the old for the new, in a social welfare superior concept? Who will provide the real recipe for social and economic contradiction of the culture of the people, in today?

We hope that the state be clear and prosperous, but must bring to the chilean family more support, to their sons and their potential for contributions to this sum, with their unique and individual contributions. We can build a better country, and make a great and unified the same family and its definition, with higher goals.

This is important, but we recognize that our family is in crisis in Chile. And no, no decent values ​​are respected, as a product of consumerism, exitism and the craving for novelty. This is where to point the responsibility of the State, which currently does nothing to overcome the initial and final contradiction which is the Chilean education.

E. Criteria needs.

Criteria gentlemen!..., Criteria are the guidelines and principles that must be established everywhere in Chile, and many measurements.

There is in Chile a deterioration of the concept of education, which has expired within the old paradigms. Today, the internalization of standards is essential and this should be considered medium-term goals, at most. (Short term: 1 year, medium term. 3-5 years, and long term: 5-10 or more years).

For this reason, training of undergraduate careers is preferred by universities and the local labor market, ie, a professional undergraduate is more valued than a graduate from the failures of the system can not adapt quickly to the requirements or international training standards, in line with global standards of professional practice. That is, the focus is to train professionals with little mediocre rating, for the money they pay their tuition.

F. Professional License.

The professional licensing "low or dubious" quality, marketing entrabará simply work with sub criteria and "organizations" employability increasingly distorted scientific criteria and respectable. This retreat, desmedra the efforts of others, no doubt worry develop better standards. But ... A degree, a master's or doctoral degree, are different situations that have not been clarified in Chile. In USA, a PhD. or Doctor, does the work of top appointments, conducts classes in universities, and has a higher income in the profession. A Master or master, performs work of appointment means, cooperating with doctors and practical work of the specialty, and has a median income in the profession. A graduate undergraduate appointment takes less work, cooperate in research only as a practical assistant, has no power over specialists and has an income lower than the other two levels. So of course ... Chile apparently moves to another paradigm, I do not know what will, should clearly show and stop deceiving people, how. The old schools or adapt or die, but we must also worry about improving the new schools. Fortunately new professionals have concluded that with effort his undergraduate, master's and doctorate, are demanding to update the parameters of professional marketing.

However, the Chilean State, through its former president Don Ricardo Lagos, who holds PhD studies. in economics, said laws to objectively test their interest in Chile are respected universities and update the criteria above and international training, testing university's capacity for self sustenance and self-financing, as in the case of a process called accreditation, which is a series of requirements that require them to universities to be considered among the elite higher education.

In most cases, higher training standards have been complied with by the best universities, as a requirement of a gradual process of continuous improvement of academic standards, still important today, although not necessary, that university teachers have a degree academic master's degree (master) or doctoral (PhD.).

This is a slow but good indicator of potential for academic university development in Chile, although the college labor market persist partial views, which seek to maintain the criteria of demand and lower formation of college undergraduates. All this, bearing in mind that the degree in Chile, are the equivalent of three years of university study (usually part of an undergraduate five years), a very different degrees in the United States, where a professional university professional licensure, must first, get a PhD or PhD., ie, ten to twelve years of college on average, to just choose the possibility of having the license.

G. Offer and demand of education.

In Chile, the university cost control, reduced contributions and diversification of state universities, which aims to strengthen the financial independence of the universities, have developed in Chile, a very bad habit, which is to implement and deliver on universities, countless undergraduate careers, who have no significant or associated technology costs, and using only book, slate and stylus (Commercial Engineering, Psychology, Law, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Pedagogies, etc.). , races according to the national job placement criteria, are no longer required in the market to exceed demand, but which nevertheless remain part of the annual university education and permanent. Thus, today, undergraduate professions have saturated the labor market, because there is an oversupply of them, thus generating a low salary of professionals and also a superposition of undergraduate professional standards, up from graduate. Made inconceivable in global higher education sectors.

Today, you can find a lot of professionals "entitled" undergraduate, who are unemployed, this has involved and encouraged the pursuit of higher learning and continuity from some of them (those who financially can do so), but labor demand in Chile, is giving priority to undergraduate professional, perhaps because the lower price of professional services bidders and the story always remains Chilean university with no public clarification of the status and the occupational hierarchy in all university social environments.

As noted, the university social dilemma is clear, or performing a PI real or a hoax is done not explicit, sobresaturando the market for self-financing university. Even today you can find some undergraduate university professions, have positioned themselves in top shape to pursue postgraduate university teaching. For example, in a Chilean university is required to exercise teaching an undergraduate business degree (commonly given to undergraduate Commercial Engineers) to a Certified Public Accountant who holds an MBA (Master of Business). That is, less training was required undergraduate, taking into account that international standards are clear, being irrelevant to these higher standards, undergraduate education, compared with the advanced training of highly skilled graduate.

This is necessary to clarify and improve, because it is inconceivable that the special interests and petty Chilean universities and Latin, exceeding the universal criteria of science and the universality of knowledge, especially in times of high specialization.


A. - Is the job market saturated Chilean undergraduate careers?

Response. - I think that is supersaturated in many races undergraduate and postgraduate training is overwhelming, especially the education area. This means that there are doctors or PhD. Chilean Doctor of Education, but there are PhD's in other specialties.

2. - Is the job market saturated Chilean industrial psychology?

In the case of Chile, and Industrial Psychology, I think that there is only a first PhD in Industrial Psychology this year, this is a significant event, but not significant, and considering that in Chile, a "psychologist," according to the Chilean design psychology college, get a degree undergraduate, which enables you to practice in all areas of psychology. This is somewhat questionable, and reflects the trend of poor Chilean training in psychology. This is an extraordinarily fallacious Chilean professional standards, given that psychology is a science, and that Chile is not a monopoly of it. And considering that in Chile there are only three entries in undergraduate psychology. Taking into consideration that the American Psychological Association, there are 54 divisions, which correspond to different areas of psychology as a science. Tired larger the difference, do not you think? Or is it better Chilean psychology, that psychology as a science?

3. - You said that there is insufficient undergraduate training for professional practice in some areas, such as industrial and organizational psychology 

Response. - Of course, no doubt there are many training failures. Especially considering that there are Latin countries, such as in Puerto Rico, where he teaches a graduate program in industrial and organizational psychology, in which even themselves, with all his experience and expertise in the area by professionals properly formed in the area, they are constantly improving their own programs, standards and questioning their own training, with a vision, I think, quite successful for continuous improvement of the specialty. What can we expect from other places where not even the art as such, ie, academically and nominally fair or appropriate?

In fact, I receive many queries specific to some new Chilean psychologists, who formed the "Chilean psychology", lack of adequate training, according to normal standards of industrial and organizational psychology specialty.

For me knowledge is the first, the name is secondary, but it is a legitimate nomination and inappropriate that exists in Chile and in several Latin countries.

4. - There are many areas of supersaturation of the labor market? 

Response. - Unfortunately there are many, and apparently, no indicator of improvement or optimization of the criteria in the labor market, creating great uncertainty in the universities and professional graduates